Elon Musk’s Plan for Tesla-Built Batteries Faces an Acceleration Challenge

Elon Musk desires to rapidly manufacture cheaper batteries. However Tesla’s chief government is unlikely to hit formidable targets for Tesla to mass-produce its personal new batteries this yr, trade insiders and analysts say. Though Musk is thought for doing the inconceivable, beginning with reworking the electrical automobile maker into the world’s most beneficial auto firm, the challenges of launching a brand new manufacturing facility and creating a brand new technique of battery manufacturing will in all probability be too giant.

The stakes are excessive. Costs of battery components like nickel hit report highs this week on provide fears stemming from the Russia-Ukraine battle, and Musk predicted battery provide constraints in January subsequent yr, making inner manufacturing a key to progress.

“It changes the way battery manufacturing is done,” stated Shirley Meng, a College of Chicago professor who beforehand labored with Maxwell, a battery know-how firm acquired by Tesla. “It’s really, really difficult to manufacture at speed and scale.” “I think they’ll probably fall short of the 4680 ramp-up over the next year,” stated Gene Munster, managing companion at enterprise capital agency Loup Ventures, referring to the battery’s EV battery. new technology. Munster sees Tesla beating its longer-term targets, however beginning slowly, given its historical past of manufacturing new fashions.

Musk says manufacturing the batteries at scale might be very tough, however they’re important to his purpose of constructing cheaper, longer-range electrical vehicles that may preserve Tesla forward of a rising group of rivals.

Like different automakers, Tesla sources battery cells from suppliers together with Panasonic, CATL and LG Vitality Resolution. On the finish of 2020, Musk introduced that Tesla was aiming to chop the prices of the costliest a part of an EV in half by producing its personal batteries.

Tesla’s 4680 lithium-ion batteries – with a diameter of 46 millimeters and a size of 80 millimeters – comprise about 5 instances the vitality of its present smaller 2170 cells. Tesla can use fewer new cells for a similar vitality and vary, decreasing prices.

Tesla has introduced that it’s going to start transport Mannequin Y automobiles with its bigger battery cells by the tip of March. In 2020, Musk stated Tesla would have the capability to provide 100 gigawatt hours from 4,680 batteries this yr, sufficient to energy about 1.3 million vehicles, and greater than sufficient to energy manufacturing at factories in Texas and Germany.

Tesla is predicted to ship about 1.4 million automobiles this yr. Business researcher Benchmark Mineral Intelligence expects the corporate to provide batteries for round 30,000 Mannequin Y automobiles, rising to 484,000 in 2024, based on a beforehand unpublished forecast offered to Reuters.

Double problem

Tesla faces a protracted technique of ramping up a battery manufacturing facility, sophisticated by plans to make use of a brand new manufacturing know-how known as dry electrode coating.

“There is a very long process of fine-tuning the equipment before it can go into volume production,” stated Caspar Rawles, chief information officer at Benchmark, including that Tesla ought to refine the manufacturing course of this yr to make sure quantity manufacturing in 2023.

“Battery production is difficult, even difficult for experienced suppliers,” Rawles stated.

Tesla stated it produced its millionth 4680 cell in January. He did not say how lengthy it took to achieve that milestone, however Benchmark estimated that a million cells would energy simply 1,200 Mannequin Ys, suggesting Tesla nonetheless has a protracted solution to go.

Tesla didn’t reply to e-mail questions on its battery enterprise. Senior Vice President Drew Baglino stated in January that Tesla is “making significant ramp-curve progress” at its check battery plant in Fremont, Calif., whereas putting in battery gear at its subsequent plant in Texas.

Baglino stated “Tesla’s goal is to improve quality and cost performance to ensure we are ready for larger volumes this year as we move forward and next year.”

An indication of Tesla’s ambition, it expects to beat established battery makers Panasonic and LG to market with 4680s. The principle issue for Tesla is that it plans a brand new manufacturing course of, known as dry electrode, a know-how it obtained by its 2019 acquisition of Californian startup Maxwell Applied sciences. The manufacturing facility gear, Musk stated, “doesn’t exist. It’s made.”

Manufacturing dry electrodes skips a standard and complex step in battery manufacturing that entails chemical slurry. If it really works, it is going to be cheaper and more practical, however Musk freely admits that might be a problem.

“The very difficult part is then to scale up that production and get extremely high reliability and safety with the cells,” he advised a European battery convention in November 2020.

Even so, his timeline is taken into account optimistic. It took greater than a decade for battery producers to optimize the traditional lithium-ion battery manufacturing course of.

Musk, who described a “production hell” of mass-producing the Mannequin 3 sedan a number of years in the past – may expertise the beginning of a “valley of death” to step up the dry electrode course of, stated the Professor Meng, including, nonetheless, that Tesla will overcome the difficulties. .

© Thomson Reuters 2022


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